The second Muslim conquest saw a great shift in Berber civilization, as the people were forced to convert in great numbers or to flee to the hills.
However, as internal conflicts began to sway the Muslim stronghold in North Africa in the fifteenth century, Europeans capitalized on this, and by 1510 Spain had seized Algiers, Oran, and other important port cities. In retaliation for Algerian debts and insolence toward the European nation, they blockaded several Algerian ports, and when this did not succeed, they invaded Algiers on 5 July 1830.
In 1871 Muslims staged the biggest revolt since that of Abd al-Qadir thirty-one years earlier.
The French responded by tightening control and further restricting the rights of the Algerians.
Inland from the coast is the High Plateau region, with an elevation of 1,300 to 4,300 feet (396 to 1,311 meters).
This is mostly rocky and dry, dotted with vegetation on which cattle, sheep, and goats graze.
At about the same time, the French began immigrating in large numbers to Algeria, in an attempt by the French government to replace Algerian culture with their own.
The Berbers put up resistance, particularly to the edict that both religious and political leaders could only be Arabian.Arabic and Berber are the languages most spoken in day-to-day life.French is being phased out, but it remains an important language in business and some scientific and technical fields, and it is taught as a second language in the schools. The flag is green and white, with a red star and crescent.Please note that the data for all countries is in the process of being updated.For the most recent data (including 2013 data), download the State of The World's Children 2015 Country Statistical tables [Excel] and choose a country.