When Jerusalem fell in 1187, Frederick s selfrepresentation was slightly remodelled as he was now stepping into the role of God s banner bearer while retaining the former elements of his ideology.
v Acknowledgements First of all, I would like to thank my supervisor, professor Daniel Ziemann, for all the trust he put in me almost two years ago. It is mainly through his suggestions and support that I could study my chosen topic on an extended Erasmus leave in Heidelberg.
The royal seal of Conrad III ( ), Wieczorek, Alfried, Bernd Schneidmüller and Stefan Weinfurter, eds., Die Staufer und Italien: Drei Innovationsregionen im mittelalterlichen Europa, vol 2 (Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss, 2010), image II. Frederick Barbarossa s royal golden bull ( ), Schramm, Die deutschen Kaiser und Könige in Bildern ihrer Zeit, images 208a-208b Figure 5.
Frederick Barbarossa s imperial seal , Schramm, Die deutschen Kaiser und Könige in Bildern ihrer Zeit, image Figure 6.
I will examine the elements Barbarossa uses in a political context, thereby determining their purpose and their models.
In the study of material sources, special focus will be placed on the growth of the cult of Saint Charlemagne in Aachen, which will be interpreted as an imitation of the cult of Constantine the Great in Byzantium.
The Cappenberg head ( ) viewed frontally, Ursula Nilgen, Staufische Bildpropaganda: Legitimation und Selbstverständnis im Wandel, in Die Staufer und Italien: Drei Innovationsregionen im mittelalterlichen Europa, eds.
I am especially thankful to Bojana Vasiljević for all the coffee and the discussions we had, and to Ivan Grabar and Alen Milosavljević for their unflinching critiques, logic and, most of all, patience.
Finally, I would like to thank my whole family for supporting me during these two years, but especially my mother, who did so much so that I could follow my dreams.
Frederick Barbarossa s royal seal ( , Percy Ernst Schramm, Die deutschen Kaiser und Könige in Bildern ihrer Zeit: , ed.
Florentine Mütherich (Munich: Prestel, 1983), image Figure 3.