It was only with the Crusader Kingdoms, and the paramountcy (praedominium) enjoyed by the (Latin) Church of the West, that contention arose regarding the Holy Places and continued unabated through the Mamluk and Ottoman periods until the declaration of the Status Quo in 1852.The communities may be divided into four basic categories - Orthodox, Non-Chalcedonian (Monophysite), Catholic (Latin and Uniate) and Protestant - consisting of some 20 ancient and indigenous churches, and another 30, primarily Protestant, denominational groups.An Armenian religious community has been present in Jerusalem since the 5th century.Armenian sources date the first Patriarchate to a charter given by the Caliph Omar to Patriarch Abraham in the year 638.130 CE) by Hadrian as the Roman city of Aelia Capitolina.Since this date the local Church has been entirely gentile in composition.Before 1939 the community numbered more than 15,000, and was the third largest Christian group.
The Armenian Orthodox Church dates from the year 301 and the conversion of Armenia, the first nation to embrace Christianity.
The Coptic Orthodox Church has its roots in Egypt, where most of the population became Christian during the first centuries. The community flourished during the Mamluk period (1250-1517), and again with Mohammed Ali in 1830.
Since the 13th century the (Coptic) Patriarch of Alexandria has been represented in Jerusalem by a resident archbishop.
Being in communion with the Greek Orthodox Church, they are under the local jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate.
The Russian Orthodox mission was established in Jerusalem in 1858, but Russian Christians had begun visiting the Holy Land in the 11th century, only a few years after the Conversion of Kiev.