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This, plus his ensuing anti-Semitic comments, stained his status as an American hero.In the fall of 1938, Herschel Grynszpan (1921-45), a 17-year-old ethnically Polish Jew who had been living in France for several years, learned that the Nazis had exiled his parents to Poland from Hanover, Germany, where Herschel had been born and his family had lived for years.On November 9 to November 10, 1938, in an incident known as “Kristallnacht”, Nazis in Germany torched synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses and killed close to 100 Jews.In the aftermath of Kristallnacht, also called the “Night of Broken Glass,” some 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to Nazi concentration camps.

Shortly afterward, they were sent to the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp where they perished in a gas chamber.

German Jews had been subjected to repressive policies since 1933, when Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) became chancellor of Germany.

However, prior to Kristallnacht, these Nazi policies had been primarily nonviolent.

Julian Morgenstern (1881-1976), president of the college, traveled to Washington, D. Morgenstern was told that Spanier was denied the visa because he was a librarian and, according to U. State Department rules, a visa could not be issued to an academic in a secondary educational position even if a major American educational institution had pledged to support him.

Lewkowitz, a philosophy professor at the Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary, was granted a visa.

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