The climate of the country is transitional between the maritime type of western Europe and the continental type found farther east.As a result, damp air masses of Atlantic origin predominate, alternating with continental Eurasian and, more rarely, colder Arctic air or air with a southern, tropical origin.In the southeast there are sandy soils, somewhat loamy and moderately podzolized.Sandy soils in fact cover one-fourth of Lithuania, and most of these are blanketed by woodlands.For example, if the father's surname ends in 'ys', the daughter's surname would end in 'yte'.Married women will always have a surname ending in 'iene'.
A distinctive feature of the Lithuanian landscape is the presence of about 3,000 lakes, mostly in the east and southeast.Lithuania, country of northeastern Europe, the southernmost and largest of the three Baltic states. The new Soviet parliament acknowledged Lithuania’s independence on September 6, 1991.Lithuania was a powerful empire that dominated much of eastern Europe in the 14th–16th centuries before becoming part of the Polish-Lithuanian confederation for the next two centuries. Lithuania was admitted into the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 2004. Underlying rock structures are of little significance for the contemporary Lithuanian terrain, which basically is a low-lying plain scraped by Ice Age glaciers that left behind thick, ridgelike terminal deposits known as moraines.The boggy regions produce large quantities of peat that, dried by air, is used in both industry and agriculture. In the northwest the soil is either loamy or sandy (and sometimes marshy) and is quite heavily podzolized, or leached out.In the central region, weakly podzolized loamy peats predominate, and it is there that the most fertile, and hence most cultivated, soils are found.