Russia won the right to be the 2018 host in the second round of voting.
The Portugal/Spain bid came second, and that from Belgium/Netherlands third.
England, which was bidding to host its second tournament, was eliminated in the first round.
The English Football Association and others raised concerns of bribery on the part of the Russian team and corruption from FIFA members.
During the bidding process, the three remaining non-UEFA nations (Australia, Japan, and the United States) gradually withdrew from the 2018 bids, and the UEFA nations were thus ruled out of the 2022 bid.
The bid evaluation report stated: "The Russian bid proposes 13 host cities and 16 stadiums, thus exceeding FIFA's minimum requirement.
Three of the 16 stadiums would be renovated, and 13 would be newly constructed." In October 2011, Russia decreased the number of stadiums from 16 to 14.
Both Iceland and Panama qualified for the first time, with the former becoming the smallest country in terms of population to reach the World Cup.
Other teams returning after absences of at least three tournaments include: Egypt, returning to the finals after their last appearance in 1990; Morocco, who last competed in 1998; Peru, returning after 1982; and Senegal, competing for the second time after reaching the quarter-finals in 2002.